You are viewing documentation for Kubernetes version: v1.23
Kubernetes v1.23 documentation is no longer actively maintained. The version you are currently viewing is a static snapshot. For up-to-date documentation, see the latest version.
Kubernetes v1.21 [stable]
A CronJob creates Jobs on a repeating schedule.
One CronJob object is like one line of a crontab (cron table) file. It runs a job periodically on a given schedule, written in Cron format.
schedule: times are based on the timezone of the
If your control plane runs the kube-controller-manager in Pods or bare containers, the timezone set for the kube-controller-manager container determines the timezone that the cron job controller uses.
The v1 CronJob API does not officially support setting timezone as explained above.
Setting variables such as
TZ is not officially supported by the Kubernetes project.
TZ is an implementation detail of the internal library being used
for parsing and calculating the next Job creation time. Any usage of it is not
recommended in a production cluster.
When creating the manifest for a CronJob resource, make sure the name you provide is a valid DNS subdomain name. The name must be no longer than 52 characters. This is because the CronJob controller will automatically append 11 characters to the job name provided and there is a constraint that the maximum length of a Job name is no more than 63 characters.
CronJobs are meant for performing regular scheduled actions such as backups, report generation, and so on. Each of those tasks should be configured to recur indefinitely (for example: once a day / week / month); you can define the point in time within that interval when the job should start.
This example CronJob manifest prints the current time and a hello message every minute:
apiVersion: batch/v1 kind: CronJob metadata: name: hello spec: schedule: "* * * * *" jobTemplate: spec: template: spec: containers: - name: hello image: busybox:1.28 imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent command: - /bin/sh - -c - date; echo Hello from the Kubernetes cluster restartPolicy: OnFailure
(Running Automated Tasks with a CronJob takes you through this example in more detail).
Cron schedule syntax
# ┌───────────── minute (0 - 59) # │ ┌───────────── hour (0 - 23) # │ │ ┌───────────── day of the month (1 - 31) # │ │ │ ┌───────────── month (1 - 12) # │ │ │ │ ┌───────────── day of the week (0 - 6) (Sunday to Saturday; # │ │ │ │ │ 7 is also Sunday on some systems) # │ │ │ │ │ OR sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat # │ │ │ │ │ # * * * * *
|@yearly (or @annually)||Run once a year at midnight of 1 January||0 0 1 1 *|
|@monthly||Run once a month at midnight of the first day of the month||0 0 1 * *|
|@weekly||Run once a week at midnight on Sunday morning||0 0 * * 0|
|@daily (or @midnight)||Run once a day at midnight||0 0 * * *|
|@hourly||Run once an hour at the beginning of the hour||0 * * * *|
For example, the line below states that the task must be started every Friday at midnight, as well as on the 13th of each month at midnight:
0 0 13 * 5
To generate CronJob schedule expressions, you can also use web tools like crontab.guru.
A cron job creates a job object about once per execution time of its schedule. We say "about" because there are certain circumstances where two jobs might be created, or no job might be created. We attempt to make these rare, but do not completely prevent them. Therefore, jobs should be idempotent.
startingDeadlineSeconds is set to a large value or left unset (the default)
concurrencyPolicy is set to
Allow, the jobs will always run
at least once.
startingDeadlineSecondsis set to a value less than 10 seconds, the CronJob may not be scheduled. This is because the CronJob controller checks things every 10 seconds.
For every CronJob, the CronJob Controller checks how many schedules it missed in the duration from its last scheduled time until now. If there are more than 100 missed schedules, then it does not start the job and logs the error
Cannot determine if job needs to be started. Too many missed start time (> 100). Set or decrease .spec.startingDeadlineSeconds or check clock skew.
It is important to note that if the
startingDeadlineSeconds field is set (not
nil), the controller counts how many missed jobs occurred from the value of
startingDeadlineSeconds until now rather than from the last scheduled time until now. For example, if
200, the controller counts how many missed jobs occurred in the last 200 seconds.
A CronJob is counted as missed if it has failed to be created at its scheduled time. For example, If
concurrencyPolicy is set to
Forbid and a CronJob was attempted to be scheduled when there was a previous schedule still running, then it would count as missed.
For example, suppose a CronJob is set to schedule a new Job every one minute beginning at
08:30:00, and its
startingDeadlineSeconds field is not set. If the CronJob controller happens to
be down from
10:21:00, the job will not start as the number of missed jobs which missed their schedule is greater than 100.
To illustrate this concept further, suppose a CronJob is set to schedule a new Job every one minute beginning at
08:30:00, and its
startingDeadlineSeconds is set to 200 seconds. If the CronJob controller happens to
be down for the same period as the previous example (
10:21:00,) the Job will still start at 10:22:00. This happens as the controller now checks how many missed schedules happened in the last 200 seconds (ie, 3 missed schedules), rather than from the last scheduled time until now.
The CronJob is only responsible for creating Jobs that match its schedule, and the Job in turn is responsible for the management of the Pods it represents.
Starting with Kubernetes v1.21 the second version of the CronJob controller
is the default implementation. To disable the default CronJob controller
and use the original CronJob controller instead, one pass the
flag to the kube-controller-manager,
and set this flag to
false. For example:
- Learn about Pods and Jobs, two concepts that CronJobs rely upon.
- Read about the format
- For instructions on creating and working with CronJobs, and for an example of a CronJob manifest, see Running automated tasks with CronJobs.
- For instructions to clean up failed or completed jobs automatically, see Clean up Jobs automatically
CronJobis part of the Kubernetes REST API. Read the CronJob object definition to understand the API for Kubernetes cron jobs.